Saturday, May 28, 2011


Schizophrenia is also called split personality disorder, it is a chronic, severe, debilitating mental illness that affects nearly 1% of the population in which more than 2 million people in the United States are affected by it alone, it effects majority of men as compared to women around the world, it is characterized within an individual’s social, behavioral and thoughts problems, no doubt its an psychotic problem. The problem of thinking which is attached with schizophrenia is described as psychosis, in that the person's thinking is completely out of touch means the person could not handle that with reality at times, for example they might hear several voices and may feel that a bug is crawling on their skin when there is nothing actually, they may see the dead persons and they may feel many things which a normal person does not trust at all, children of around 5-6 years of age or above may have this disorder, it is truly not a hereditary disease in fact.

Types of Schizophrenia :

There are different types of Schizophrenia, some of them are:
1. Residual Schizophrenia: In this type, the person having this disorder would have only negative symptoms (such the symptoms are characterized by a decrease in function, such as withdrawal, disinterest, and not speaking).
2. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: episodic Schizophrenia.
3. Catatonic Schizophrenia: difficulties in movements , running and walking.
4. Paranoid Schizophrenia: may hear auditory sensations and may be fear full of some selected delusions.
5. Disorganized Schizophrenia: problems in speaking and language disorders.
Causes of Schizophrenia:
1. It is the result of a complex group of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors.
2. Environment
3. Circumstances of child hood
4. Life circumstances
5. If someone losses his/ her parent at early age, weak family background or poverty, emotional, sexual, or physical abuse, physical or emotional neglect and insecure attachment have been associated with the development of this illness.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia :

1. Catatonic behaviors.
2. Disorganized speech.
3. Loneliness.
4. Belief in the basis which are not real.
5. Lack of motivation.
6. Lack of speech.
7. Inhibition of facial expressions.

Diagnosis of Schizophrenia :

1. Anxiety.
2. Depression.
3. Loneliness.
4. Autism.
5. Bizarre behavior.
6. Dissociative identity disorder.
7. Mental illness.
8. Committing suicide or trying to do several times.
9. Intake of drugs in huge amount.

Treatments of Schizophrenia :

Schizophrenia can be treated by following ways :
1. Medications that provide some sort of relief and which helps in the betterment of sufferer includes olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega) and asenapine (Saphis).
2. Mood stabilizer medicines are also used.
3. Lithium is effective in treating schizophrenia and is good for depression and behavioral disorders.
4. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is very effective in treating the patients of Schizophrenia.
5. Counseling can be done from a expert psychologist or counselors.
6. Family psycho-education.
7. Assertive community treatment (ACT).
8. Substance abuse treatment.
9. Psychosocial treatments.
10. Cognitive behavioral therapy also abbreviated as ( CBT ).

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa belongs to the group of hereditary progressive retinal degenerations or dystrophies which is very common, there is a variation in this disease from person to person, most commonly it is the degeneration of retina that is the cones and rods of the eye which are special light receptors.
In this disease the rods of the retina are effected first and after all the cones are deteriorate. In this progressive degeneration of the retina the peripheral vision slowly constrict the central vision, it lasts a long lifetime of an individual.

Causes Of Retinitis Pigmentosa :

1. It may be inherited from generation to generation.
2. It can be transfer from one eye to another later ever in life but if one eye is infected surely the other one will also get this symptom.
3. Some genes like dominant recessive links, sex links recessives, genetic pedigree.
4. Along with this disease there may be a chance of usher syndrome as well.

Diagnosis Of Retinitis Pigmentosa :

1. Retinitis pigmentosa is a disease which may be present from early childhood or may be from birth but it shows its prescence in teenage.
2. There are approximately 78,000 people in the United States with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).
3. Along with retinitis pigmentosa hearing loss and blindness may occur.
4. Loss in seeing periphery.

Symptoms Of Retinitis Pigmentosa :

1. Difficulty in night vision.
2. Tunnel vision.
3. Night blindness occur in some cases.
4. Total blindness eventually ensues in most cases.

Treatment For Retinitis Pigmentosa :

1. Specialists recommend the vitamin A therapy, based on research dating back to the early 1990s.
2. Vitamin E is compulsory for the patient.
3. Omega-3-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid is also a valuable diet and can easily slow down disease progression.
4. Salads, fish, milk, chicken, cereals and the foods enrich with vitamin A and E should be used.

Friday, May 20, 2011


Melasma is a very common tan, brown or blue-gray facial skin decoloration of the skin mostly seen in women specially in reproductive years.
It usually visible on the upper lips, cheeks, forehead and on the chin of mostly women with the age of 21-50+ years, its uncommon in men but it is seem in some cases but the ratio is having in women is huge. It is usually thought that is come visible due to more exposure in sun and for those who work under sun, external hormones like birth control pills and internal hormonal changes as seen in pregnancy. Sun exposure is the most common cause of this disease, it is found in latin and asians, people with darker skin like hispanics Asians, Africans and olive darker skin victims may have it and there is more chance for them to have it, 6 million patients of melasma are in U.S and about 85% are all around world and mostly are women.

Causes of Melasma :

1. Exact cause is unknown yet.
2. Pregnancy.
3. Birth control pills may cause melasma.
4. Sun exposure sufficient amount of ultra voilent rays.
5. Genetic predisposition.
6. Inheritance.

Diagnosis of Melasma :

1. The main point from which it is mostly diagnosed is by the typical appearance of brownish skin patches on the whole face of a person.
2. By examination of skin by an expert of skin.
3. Hyperpigmentation on skin.
4. Change in tone of skin.
5. Small dark patches occur on the skin.

Treatment of Melasma :

1. Hydroquinone creams like the over-the-counter products Esoterica and Porcelana and prescription 4% creams like Obagi Clear, Glyquin, Tri-Luma, and Solaquin. Products with HQ concentrations above 2% generally require a prescription.
2. Use of sun screen avoiding masks or avoiding ultarvoilent rays.
3. A phenolic hypopigmenting agent, azelaic acid, and retinoic acid (tretinoin), nonphenolic bleaching agents, and/or kojic acid may be prescribed.

Monday, May 16, 2011


Hallucinations are the psychological cognitive processes which may include :

1. Feeling of crawling sensations on skin.
2. Seeing those objects or patterns which are not there.
3. Hearing voices but in real no one spoken.
4. Feeling different smells and tastes when they are not real.
5. Schizophrenia.

Sleep deprivation hallucinations is also a type of this psychological disorder, There are different types of recreational drugs, in which some drugs include LSD and other strong types of marijuana can cause hallucinations. In other cases, hallucinations can be normal, For instance, getting or hearing the voice of someone, or briefly seeing and sometimes grieving process like a died loved one.

Hallucinations Causes :

1. High and high fever.
2. Drugs.
3. Sadness.
4. Sensory problem like deafness and blindness.
5. Dementia and delirium.
6. Use of cocaine
7. Brain cancers.
8. Post-traumatic stress disorder.
9. Depressions.
10. Loneliness.

Hallucinations Diagnosis :

1. A person who is hallucinating looks more nervous, another prospective of a person being paranoid is also seen and he/she also looks frightened, these types of people should not be left alone, because they can met with any type of accident or can harm themselves.
2. He/She may harm others as well.
3. He may love to be alone and talk by himself ( like a mad person does).
4. He may be mentally disturbed and can easily cause severe injuries to himself.

Treatment Of Hallucinations :

A consultant or a medical expert will counsel the patient by asking several questions and by providing treatment according to those answers they may be :
1. How long have you been having hallucinations?
2. What causes you to harm others?
3. Why are you tensed?
4. Do you counter hallucinations before or after sleep?
5. Are you having fever?
6. Has there been a recent death or other emotional event?
7. Do you use drugs in irregular proportion?
Doctors may ask frequent questions like the above ones and will treat the patient according to the answers and can handle the patient easily after taking this questionnaire.

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Pagets Disease Of Bone

Pagets disease is an abnormal condition of the bone, it a chronic condition of bone actually and characterized by disorder of normal bone remodeling process. In bone affected by Pagets disease, the bone remodeling is disturbed and not synchronized as a result the bone becomes enlarged, dense less, abnormal, brittle and can easily fracture or breakage, mostly the pagets disease of bone effects the bone of adults, around 2% of adults have this disease in United States. The most common bones affected by Pagets disease include the spine, the thigh bone (femur), the pelvis, the skull, the collarbone (clavicle), and the upper arm bone (humerus). the other name for pagets disease of bone is osteitis deformans, it can be seen in children also but in form of juvenile.

Causes Of Pagets Disease :

1. Sequestrosome 1 gene on chromosome 5 are associated with pagets disease.
2. Virus infections may cause pagets disease.
3. Hereditary gene of pagets disease of bone may transfer from one generation to another through parents to offspring.
4. Lack of calcium and iron may cause abnormal bone function.

Symptoms Of Pagets Disease :

1. It is noticed when x-rays are suppose to be taken when they are to be take for another reason but suddenly pagets disease of bone come to sight.
2. Bone pain.
3. Enlarged bones.
4. Fractures
5. Deformity.
6. Arthritis.
7. Tingling and numbness.
8. Pain and stiffness of knee or hip.
9. When skull bone are effected hearing loss,vision or headaches may occur.
10. Weakness feeling in effected bones.

Treatments Of Paget Disease Of Bone :

The treatment methods involve certain types of medicines for bone, they should be carbon, potassium, calcium and iron enriched.
1. Several types of exercises are prescribed by the doctors for patients of this disease which can be done daily to avoid the stiffness or bone jam.
2. Milk is a complete food and helps in re growing of bones and maintains the condition of bones.
3. Bone pain usually needs anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or sometimes pain-healing medications.
4. Actonel, fosamax, etidronate, zoledronate, pamidronate and risedronate should be used in medicines to avoid pains and certain compilations of pagets disease of bones.

Wednesday, May 11, 2011


Rabies is a disease in humans which is caused by the bite of any animal like dog or other if they are infected by the rabies virus, it causes certain brain diseases in humans and if not properly treated they cause respiratory problems and death in almost every person infected, rabies has been transmitted by saliva droplets from an infected animal that contacts a skin break (abrasion or cut).

Except new Zealand and Australia rabies is found worldwide, the countries with dogs have most commonly seen infected by rabies. Bats, cats, foxes and raccoons can be infected by rabies other than dogs, about 55,000+ deaths yearly are results of rabies worldwide.

Signs And Symptoms Of Rabies :

1. Headaches
2. Fever
3. Irritation in body
4. Itching
5. Shivering
6. Drooling
7. Anxiety
8. Hallucinations
9. Delirium
10. Convulsions
11. Insomnia
12. Muscles spasms
13. Swallowing difficulty
14. Numbness and tingling

Causes Of Rabies :

It was suggested by the scientist Girolamo Fracastoro studied rabies and concluded that it was a communicable disease transmitted to people by direct contact with saliva from infected animals, animals can easily transmit rabies to humans and other animals which may result in severe and dangerous happenings to the patients, a person may also die if not treated well and if not given the vaccine as the first aid he may develop sever nerve breakdown and may loss the control over body.

Rabies Treatment :

1. It can be treated by giving a person an injection of rabies immune globulin and another injection of rabies vaccine as soon as possible after the bite or exposure to saliva from an infected animal.
2. CDC is an additional vaccine from 2010 and onwards for the patients of rabies, which is to be given on day 3rd,7th and 14th after exposure.

Rabies Prevention :

The best and easy way to prevent rabies in a country is to prevent the animals from getting rabies, the complete rabies cycle vaccine should be given to the animals and in this way the rabies will be minimize itself and the people will also be automatically prevented from rabies.

Sunday, May 8, 2011


What is Pica ?

Pica is a medical disorder non nutritive in nature, it may be caused due to some psychological issues of the individual, characterized by an appetite for substances which are usually not eatable and have are non nutritive (for example clay, metal, coal, sand, dirt, soil, toothbrushes, soap, mucus, ash, gum and things which are available in powdery form or the ingredients from the food source (for example salt, flour, potato, rice, starch, ice cubes). The word Pica basically comes from a latin word magpie a bird that is reputed to eat almost everything. pica can be seen in people of all ages but most commonly seen in pregnant women,children and the people with developmental disorders.
Most commonly pica is seen in women and children, it is found in those children who have habit of eating dangerous things like lead, plastics and steels and other things which are poisonous.

Causes Of Pica Syndrome :

Pica syndrome is disorder of appetite cause due to mineral deficiency like take iron deficiency which results in celiac diseases or certain hookworms infection, the individual eats those minerals in pica form in which he is having deficiency in his body. It is usually seen that some mental health conditions like obsessive compulsive disorder can easily cause this disorder, it is also researched that traumatic stress are also lead to pica, individuals having pica disease have some sort of family problem, child abuse and some other factors too.

Symptoms Of Pica :

1. When it is diagnosed that the individual eats non nutritive foods or metals.
2. Eating those things (non nutritive) again and again by an individual.
3. Although eating poisonous or dangerous things without any hesitation.
4. Addiction of non nutritive or harmful food ingredients and also the metals.

Treatment Of Pica :

1. Treating the deficiencies of minerals in body.
2. Family advice
3. Consulting a doctor which can guide and can handle the psychological problems regarding this.
4. The therapy and medication such as SSRIs are commonly used throughout the world.
5. Zinc is successful at treating pica.
6. Behavior therapies.

Friday, May 6, 2011


Goitre is caused due to deficiency of iodine in diet, it is also known as Goiter, the deficiency of iodine causes swelling in the neck where thyroid gland is, there are 90% cases worldwide effected by goiter, iodine is a compulsory mineral for avoiding goiter, most commonly it is widely seen in those countries which are developing and the intake of salts or iodine are low there, iodine is to be taken by every men, women, children, teenage and infant to avoid goiter.

Causes Of Goitre :

1. The thyroid gland which lies in the body uses organic iodine in its secretion process and a diet deficient in organic iodine is affecting factor towards causing this disease, especially under physical and emotional disturbances.
2. It effects those who intake denatured foods.
3. Food taken in raw or uncooked form may also lead toward goiter.

Symptoms Of Goiter :

1. Swelling on neck area appears and it is very obvious may be clearly seen on the neck easily.
2. Pain in the neck region.
3. Fever, headaches.
4. Fatigue.
5. Unemotional and embarrassment in state of mind.
6. Lack of confidence.
7. Dull skin color.

Home Remedies Of Goiter :

1. Rest and bowel cleansing with lukewarm water:
For the first five days the patient should take complete rest and should clean the bowel with lukewarm water daily.

2. Using seeds of Flex:
The seeds of flex are good for reducing swelling, they should be heated in water, grounded and then applied to effected area.

3. Bauhinia variegate for goiter:
Also known as kachnar should be used for goiter, it should be used in empty stomach twice a day.

4. Swamp cabbage for goiter:
the water or tea of swamp cabbage should be used daily, it is good for thyroid hormones.

5. Using iodine:
Iodine should be given in organic form oats, garlic, lettuce, onion, carrot, guavas, pineapple, egg yolks, citrus fruits, rice, strawberries and tomatoes should be given.

6. Leaves of dandelion are good for goiter.

7. Watercress paste:
A paste made of watercress applied to effected area reduces the swelling and pain in goiter effected area.

Diets For Goitre Patients :

1. Fruits.
2. Milk.
3. Fresh fruit juices.
4. Those foods which are enrich with iodine and calcium.

Foods To Avoid During Goiter :

1. White sugars.
2. Teas.
3. Alcohols.
4. Flesh foods.
5. Greasy foods.
6. Condiments.
7. Preserves.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Blue Babies

Blue babies syndrome is an environmental caused disease in children. It is also called methemoglobinemia, it causes when the blood of an infant is unable to carry enough rewired amount of oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body. It is caused by a increased level of methemoglobin which lies in the blood.
Methemoglobin is a non oxygen carrying enzyme which is produced in body continually, it is converted into haemoglobin. The amount of haemoglobin reduces due to the Methemoglobin. The blue babies is a environmental cause, basically the color of the baby soon after or after sometime becomes bluish in color due to lack of oxygen in heart and blood.

Causes Of Blue Babies :

Blue baby syndrome is caused by several congenital heart defects which results in low supply of oxygen along with blood in the body and the abnormal flow of the blood from right to left shunt causes baby to turn blue in color. Other causes are :
1. Baby health condition.
2. Skin conditions.
3. Respiratory condition.

Symptoms Of Blue Babies :

1. Blueness in baby’s body.
2. Weakness and lack of blood.
3. Cyanosis.
4. Respiratory problems.
5. Circulation defects.
6. Heartbeat resonance abnormal.

Treatment Methods Of Blue Babies :

1. The foremost and first option doctors avail after blue baby is diagnosed in a baby they go for the heart surgery to pump the blood in balanced manner through the shunts of the heart.
2. Secondly the supply of oxygen while performing the heart surgery is necessary.
3. Treating cyanosis is very compulsory.
4. Many of the babies died after the heart surgery but now the treatment of blue babies is well known by the doctors.

Monday, May 2, 2011


Insomnia which is also known as sleeplessness is a disorder which mostly experienced by people having age more than 18 or one can say adults in their life. An estimated 25% to 45% of the general population are affected by this disorder and around 10% have chronic insomnia, insomnia is not a disease but it is a condition or state of mind, in this state of mind an adult mostly experience less or sometimes no sleep at all, which effects the whole body and the daily life activities.
I have its definition on which every one will not agree , but generally:
Symptoms which lasts less than 1 week are known as transient insomnia,
And the symptoms between 1-3 weeks are known as short-term insomnia and those longer than 3 weeks are known as chronic insomnia.

Causes Of Insomnia:

There are many physical and psychological causes of this disorder:
1. Stress.
2. Depression.
3. Schizophrenia.
4. Unpleasant noises.
5. Unpleasant moods.
6. Relationship mis under standings.
7. Withdrawal from drug, alcohol, sedative, or stimulant medications.
8. On high altitudes.
9. Nasal congestions.
10. Fever.
11. Cough.
12. Heart failure.
13 Angina.
14 Fear.
15 Anxiety.
16 Tension.
17 Pregnancy.
18 Menopause.
19 Drug addiction.
20 Severe injury.

Symptoms Of Insomnia:

1. Memory difficulty.
2. Alcohol and antihistamines may compound the problems with sleep deprivation.
3. Irritability and impaired social interaction
4. Lack of interest in daily lives
5. Poor focus and concentration

Treatment of Insomnia:

The patients should seek advice from the doctors and specialists and the people with psychological disorders should see a psychologist also which an help them in solving their problems and making them sleep without an stress and tension.

Sunday, May 1, 2011

HIVES (Uticaria)

Hives in medical term are known as uticaria, which are swollen red, very itchy, smoothly elevated disorder of skin. They appear anywhere on body with different sizes and different shapes, from few millimeters to inches in diameter. Hives are more common in woman than men. The swelling which occurs in skin parts which is deep and that is followed by hives is called angioedema.

Causes Of Hives :

Hives are caused when histamine is released from the body cells called mast cells.which actually release from the blood vessels and causes hives which are swollen on the skin.hives are very common they resolve after a period of time by themselves.some types of hives are caused as a result of allergy but mostly no defeinite cause is known.hives leads towards stress.

Symptoms Of Hives :

There is no definite symptom, some of the mostly found signals of hives are:
1. Reddish skin
2. Itching around the skin again and again and leading towards pain or reddish skin.
3. Swollen part of skin
4. Feeling uncomfortable with skin and itching again and again.

Treatment Of Hives :

1. Most common treatment is Antihistamines.
2. Tropical therapies are available in hospitals.
3. Camphor,menthol and pramoxine can help in get rid of it.
4. Cortisone-containing creams (steroids) are helpful creams in treating hives.


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