Saturday, April 30, 2011


Humans have four pairs of cavities :
1. Frontal which lies in the forehead region.
2. Maxillary sinus behind cheeks.
3. Ethmoid between the eyes.
4. Sphenoid sinus deep behind the ethmoids.

The 4 pairs of sinuses are often be described as a single unit and termed as "paranasal sinuses", from inside all of them are lining mucus secreting and epithelial cells which takes active part in inhaling and exhaling of the air from the nostrils, their functions are : humidifying and warming inspired air, insulation of surrounding structures (eyes, nerves), increasing voice resonance and as buffers against facial trauma. The sinuses decrease the weight of the skull.
The infection of the sinus occurs when there is a blockage in any sinus ostium, which is caused by the pathogenic viruses, allergies, humid, bacteria or fungus. Sinusitis is one of the most common condition that can harm people throughout their lives, it is a research based myth that more than 30 million adults of the world have sinus.

Causes Of Sinusitis Infection :

When anything interfere in between the nasal passages, there is a difficulty in passing and inhaling the air easily because the tissue of the effected lining swallowed and there is no way to pass that air easily so it irritate the patients a lot, for example with common colds, allergies, and tissue irritants such as OTC nasal sprays, cocaine, and cigarette smoke.

Types Of Sinusitis :

1. Acute sinus infection ( it usually has less than thirty days duration)
2. Sub-acute sinus infection ( over 1 month and less than 3 month )
3. Chronic sinus infections ( greater than 3 months )

Symptoms Of Sinus :

1. Cold.
2. Cough.
3. Fever.
4. Cloudy, dis colored drainage.
5. Nasal stiffness.
6. Sore throat.
7. Tearing eyes.
8. Itching.

Diagnosis Of Sinus :

Sinus can be easily diagnosed by MRI and CT scan, the physical appearances that a person can diagnose at home are:
1. Pus like drainage from nose
2. Swelling of nose
3. Redness of nasals and nose linings
4. Swelling in cheeks and eyes
5. Tenderness
6. Puffy or teary eyes during influenza or sinus

Treatment Of Sinus Infection :

No antibiotics are required, certain types of nasal drops are given along with the fever and flu or pain medications, the best allergy handlers are zyrtec and larinex, rest during sinus is prescribed by doctors and specialists, infected person should avoiding dusty places,hay fevers and colds, such as cold drinks, chill water, ice, air Conditioner and place of the home where the carpet lies, these are things must be avoided strictly because they may lead to a severe allergy.

Friday, April 29, 2011

Skin Pigmentation

Skin pigmentation is also called vitiligo. This vitiligo works as a destroyer of melanocytes ( these are the cells which make this pigment ) which are present in the skin as a result the skin becomes dull, different patches appear on the skin as well, pigmentation simply means coloring. This disorder effects the color of skin, there are many faces of skin pigmentation in which some of them are mentioned below:

1. Age spots.
2. Chloasma.
3. Keratosis.
4. Melasma.
5. Marks.
6. Problem in skin cells.
7. Darker skin.

Skin pigmentation results in stress and emotional disorders, lack of confidence in society, embarrassment and loneliness etc. Is someone see any changes in the color of the skin, he/she should consult the doctor or experts.

Causes Of Skin Pigmentation :

1. White spots on the skin are mostly seen before skin pigmentation.
2. Nervus depigmentosus.
3. Pityriasis Alba.
4. White scars.
5. Hypopigmentation.
6. Sun burns also causes skin pigmentation.
7. Deficiency of vitamins and nutritions.
8. Lack of water in the body.

If you are one of those who are experiencing brownish color of skin or darker color then before, different patches on your skin the, you may be suffering from it and which is a common complaint known as skin pigmentation. There are many factors that can instigate skin pigmentation to occur.

Symptoms Of Skin Pigmentation :

Following are the symptoms which are mostly seen are:
1. Change in tone of skin.
2. Darker look.
3. Hypopigmentation.
4. Depigmentation.

What is hypopigmentation?

When the level of skin's pigmentation losses its actual position for example skin becomes darker day by day but slow in process due to loss of pigments.

What is depigmentation?

Depigmentation is a total loss of skin pigment.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011


Alopecia is a hair loss disease which effects the hair scalp of the may effect either the one side of the head or either the both sides of the can also effect the growth of hairs on the other parts of the body beside head effects both female and males but in case of majority of the men it is seen as the result of inherited hair disease.most commonly children,men and young adults are effected by Alopecia.


1. Inheritance from your parents.
2. Abnormality in immune system causes Alopecia.
3. Thyroid diseases causes Alopecia.
4. It can also be the result of allergy.
5. Family heredity and gene are common factor in causing Alopecia.


It cannot be diagnosed easily but sometimes the biopsy of scalp can help find this disorder.


1. In some cases hair will regrow without any reason within a year.
2. In some cases Steroid injections and some other types of creams and shampoos (like as fluocinonide and clobetasol ) for the scalp are used from years. Other major medications include minoxidil, irritants (topical coal tar OR anthralin), and topical immunotherapy (cyclosporine), are of these are used with combination with other products.
3. But sometimes there is no treatment for Alopecia the patients has to deal with it through out their life time.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia is a eating disorder mostly can be found in everywhere in the world. Basically its a psychological disorder which refers to over eating. Persons having anorexia usually starts dieting to lose weight. Over time, the weight loss sign of mastery and control.
The drive of becoming thinner is on the mind of the fat person leads him to do exercises, loss of appetite, laxatives or the use of diet pills to reduce the weight of the body in any case. This cycle becomes an obsession and, in this way is similar to an addiction.
Approximately 96% of the victims who are effected by anorexia are females not males, but in some cases males may have this disorder but mostly women and specially teenage girls are usually effected by this disorder. Many specialist and experts consider that people who want themselves slim and thin like actors, dancers, athletes and models, are at severe risk for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.


Following are the causes of this disorder:
1. Hypothalamus ( the part of brain )
2. Mental depressive symptoms
3. Genetic components
4. Over and over eating


1. Person can get quality information from a professional consultant.
2. Professional doctor can also help to solve this disorder.
3. Information from a spouse, friend or family member can be useful.
4. Refusal of maintaining and balancing body weight which is above according to one's weight.
5. Fear of gaining weight.
6. Self perception which is fatty or grossly distorted.


Following are the signs which leads toward anorexia:
1. Depression which is also a main sign.
2. Individual can be easily irritable very soon.
3. Sleep can be disturb.
4. Fatigue.
5. Obsessive compulsive disorder.
6. Low blood pressure.
7. Slow heart beats.
8. Gastrointestinal complications.
9. Bone density loss (osteopenia or thinning of the bones).
10. Anemia ( sleeping disorder).
11. High levels of cholesterol.


1. Hospitalization to control the eating disorder.
2. Controlling malnutrition.
3. Medical interventions.
4. Psychological interventions.
5. Psychological therapies like family therapy, individual therapy and group therapy.
6. Maudsley model of family therapy is found very reliable in treating this disorder in this population.
7. Weight management.

Monday, April 25, 2011


Mumps is a viral disease in humans which is caused by the mumps virus, in past years the vaccination of the mumps was not introduced so that was the reason that most of the children had mumps and were seen mostly but nowadays they are minimized due to the vaccinations and better treatment.

Signs of Mumps :

Following are the mostly seen signs of mumps.
1. Swelling in the salivary glands
2. Rashes
3. Testicular swelling also occurs
4. In teenage men infertility is common during mumps.

Symptoms of Mumps :

1. Headache
2. Fever
3. Orchitis (swelling and pain in testicles)
4. Dry mouth
5. Swelling and pain in ear region
6. Loss of voice

Causes of Mumps :

Mumps is a contagious disease which is usually spread from one person to another through contact with respiratory secretions such as saliva from an infected person. When an infected human coughs or sneezes, the droplets aerosolize and easily enter the nose,eyes or mouth of another person. Another way from which it could be spread is by sharing food and drinks with other person.

Treatment Of Mumps :

Until now their is no any type of permanent treatment for this disease, but paracetamol is often used to reduce pain, secondly icing and heating is also done in the neck part. Infected persons are advised by specialists that not to drink any type of juice of fruits and juices which contains acids in them.

Thursday, April 21, 2011


Depression is a state of mind in which an individual feels sad,un happy,blue or down in dumps, most of the people feels depression whether they are on any part of world.

Causes Of Depression :

There is not a true cause of depression fount still and there may be no exact cause of it as well.because every other individual is depressed by his or her own family,career,relationships,health or there may be thousand reasons of depression as is a state of mind which vary from individual own perspective of his or her mind and difficulties in life.after all these below listed factor can also contribute in rising in depression or may causing it which is mostly seen :
1. Alcohol or drugs
2. Certain life events which may break one’s heart
3. Illnesses
4. Deaths
5. Social isolation
6. Loneliness
7. Medical conditions such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
8. Sleeping disorders

Symptoms Of Depression :

People with depression always sees the other things and aspects of their lives in a negative manner.they are unable to find the problems of their in a positive manner.following symptoms ca be easily and clearly seen in a depressed person:
1. Restlessness.
2. Fatigue.
3. Lack of energy.
4. Thoughts of death or suicide.
5. Lack of interest in own self or family beings.
6. Lack of eye contact.
7. Hopelessness.
8. Agitation.
9. Extreme difficulty concentrating.

Diagnosis Of Depression :

Beck's Depression Scale Inventory or other screening tests for depression can be helpful in making the diagnosis. Major depression is diagnosed if a person reports having five or more depressive symptoms for at least 2 weeks.

Treatment Of Depression :

Drugs which are used to treat the depression are called antidepressants.
The drug which is mostly used is (SSRIs) the complete abbreviation is Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors it is used more than any other antidepressants. Some more common names of other types of antidepressants are : fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta).
Other majorly used medicines to treat depression are: tricyclic antidepressants, bupropion (Wellbutrin) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
People who have psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions, usually need antipsychotic medications.
The other methods used for treating depression are talk therapy, counseling, mind changing, helping, playing, parties, fun, outings and laughing therapies with friends.


Dyslexia is a disorder of language, the individual suffers problems in understanding a language through any medium like written,spoken or auditory. There are three types of disorders involve in the dyslexia they are: auditory, visual and attentional, its not an intellectual disability, its is considered to be a learning and reading disability.

Dyslexia Symptoms :

The symptoms may involve the severity of the disorder according to the age of the individual, the age is a factor responsible in dyslexia for its severity and those who understand how to cope with it or how to handle their problem do not suffer because of it.

Dyslexia Treatment :

Counseling of these children in special schools designed for them are the best treatment which you can provide to these children. The teachers their should be trained enough so they can handle these children properly and can teach them the right direction they can write and read by understanding what they are suppose to do.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011


Jaundice is a yellow color of the skin staining and the sclera (whitening of eyes), the jaundice is caused by the high amount of bilirubin in blood which is a chemical. The color of the eyes and the skin is all dependent on the bilirubins when bilirubin is moderate the color becomes yellow and when its high the color of eyes and skin becomes brown, bilirubins are from the red blood cells, red blood cells have a time limit when they get old they are destroyed and the new blood cell carries oxygen from the old one and it results in the that the iron from the old cell is removed by bilirubin and it takes place the red blood cell.

Causes Of Jaundice :

The chemical named bilirubin comes from the blood of body, which lies in the red blood cells, when it becomes old enough it is destroyed. There are several causes of Jaundice, some of them are,
1. Too much amount of bilirubin in the blood.
2. Defect in the liver which protects the cell from bilirubin.
3. The defect in the bile duct which reduces the effects of bile or bilirubin to penetrate in the blood.

Symptoms Of Jaundice :

The symptoms of jaundice can be easily seen over a patient here they are:
1. Weakness.
2. Fatigue.
3. Yellow color of the body prominent on face and eyes.
4. Whitish color of eyes.
5. Tearing eyes.
6. Loss of appetite.
7. Low water in body.
8. Non balanced diet .
9. Un balanced homeostasis of body.

Diagnosis Of Jaundice :

The diagnosis method for jaundice are :

1. The examination of abdomen is checked physically.
2. Ultrasonography can also diagnose the presence of jaundice.
4. Magnetic resonance imagning (MRI)
5. Liver biopsy.

Treatments And Precautions Of Jaundice :

The treatment of jaundice involves full bed rest for months, patient should not involve in exercise or body effort’s stuff, he should do complete bed rest and some antibiotics are also being recommended by doctors, the use of fruits and juices are prescribe by doctors, patient should only eat soft and light foods. No oily food while jaundice it is prohibited by doctors, weekly blood tests and checkup from doctors are compulsory.

Beri Beri

Beri beri is a disorder of nervous system which is actually cause by the deficiency of the thiamine(deficiency of vitamin B1) in the diet of the individual, thiamine is basically found in the membranes of neurons and it is involved in the break down of the energy molecules such as glucose. Beriberi may be found in people whose diet consists mainly of polished white rice, which is very low in thiamine because the thiamin-bearing husk has been removed. It can also be seen in chronic alcoholics (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome), Arsenic poisoning causes alterations in cellular metabolism resulting in blockage of thiamine use which results in thiamine deficiency without any dietary shortfall. The mechanism of arsenic neuropathy may be similar to the neuropathy of thiamine deficiency [Sexton and Gowdy 1963], whereby arsenic inhibits the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A and thus blocks the Krebs cycle.

Symptoms Of Beri Beri :

The symptoms of the beri beri include severe fatigue and lethargy.which together effects the cardiovascular,gastrointestinal and nerous muscular systems.generally most commonly seen symptoms are:
1. Weight loss
2. Pain in the limbs
3. Weakness
4. Impaired sensory perception
5. Irregular heart rate
6. Fatigue
7. Edema (swelling of bodily tissues)

Types Of Beri Beri :

There are three true types of beri beri found across the world.
1. Infantile beri beri effects the children mostly in developing countries
2. Wet beri beri effects the cardiovascular systems.
3. Dry beri beri effects the nervous system.

Diagnosis Of Beri Beri :

1. The disease can be diagnosed by doing the following test which may involve the signs of :
2. Blood tests
3. Swelling in both lower legs
4. Decreased reflexes
5. Coordination problems
6. Enlarged heart
7. Increased heartbeats
8. Drooping of the eyelids

Treatment Of Beri Beri :

The beri beri can be treated by involving the intake of thiamine which body is lacking. This is done with thiamine supplements which are given by injection or taken by mouth.several multivitamins supplements are also recommended.


Huntington disease is an inherited disease in which the brain of the effected individual does not work properly. this disease is basically named after a scientist huntington who discovered this disease after that it is named huntington’s disease in 1872.
The subject of this disease takes a very longer time period to adjust in a society, their brain is not well developed so that the society hesitates to accept them in a healthy society, it is truly a inherited disease, if one of your parents has huntington disease so there are 50% chances of you to have it either in middle age or later on in life. It is calculated that more than 20,000 Americans have this disease. It attacks the outer surface of human brain which results in losing memory and person could not control perception and his thoughts.

Symptoms Of Huntington :

In this disease people are born with defective gene, but the signs usually do not appear until middle age, the very early symptoms of the huntigton disease are uncontrolled muscles movements of the individual against his or her will.and secondly the clumsiness or the balance problem.

Diagnosis Of Huntington :

The most common diagnosis of this disease is a blood test of gene which can ensure either you have huntington disease or not.

Treatment Of Huntington :

There is no accurate treatment to this disease up till now,doctors are not able to find its cure yet.but they do advise health and genetics counselors who may help the patients to live in a society.

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Skin Cancer

As we all know that there are dozen types of Cancer diseases, in which Skin cancer is mostly common form of cancer which happens to humans, it is also known as skin neoplasia, there are three other conditions in skin cancer, 1. basal skin cancer, 2. squamous cell cancer and 3. melanoma. Most dangerous and deadly condition with in these three is melanoma, more than 10,000 people are infected with this condition only in England, in which around 2500 people die annually. Young adults with in age of 15-25 are usually infected with this condition.
More than 1.2 million cases occur yearly of skin cancer and is increasing day by day, it is also surveyed that around 55% of all Americans with the age of 65 or more are infected with skin cancer once in their whole life.

Symptoms Of Skin Cancer :

The main symptoms of skin cancer are changes in the skin which do not heal, sore in the skin, the color of skin changes and if the moles becomes larger than ordinary size.

Causes Of Skin Cancer :

There are variety of cause which results in skin cancer, like : too much smoking tobacco, over use of Ultraviolet radiations, deficiency of vitamin D, which we get from Sun.

Prevention Of Skin Cancer :

Skin cancer can only be prevented if a person avoids using tobacco, reducing use of ultra violet, by using full leaves shirts and full clothes which can cover up the whole body specially when going outdoor.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Staph Infection OR Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus which is also known as golden staph or staph infection, actually it is a Greek name whose meaning is bunch of grapes because if someone sees this virus under microscope it looks like the bung of berries or grapes. It was first found in the 1880's and yearly it causes infection to more than 5 million people in USA only. There are many types of Staphylococci in the world but around 30 can harm humans, but the one which harms more than any of these types is Staphylococcus aureus, this virus is commonly found on the nose and other parts of the skin.

S.aureus can cause different types of illness in humans from minor skin infections like pimples, boils and impetigo, and some major infections from which one can cause pneumonia, chest pain and sepsis also. This infection is one of the biggest cause of nosocomial infection,

Symptoms Of Staphylococcus aureus :

This disease usually result in itching conditions, in which the infected persons skin becomes reddish and swollen which is very painful, it can also cause high fever and low blood pressure some times, but it depends upon the worst condition of the disease.

Treatment Of Staphylococcus aureus :

As we know that it has two types, minor and major, usually antibiotics is given to the infected person, because it reacts rapidly and can heel the person.
Penicillin is also used to treat Staphylococcus aureus.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

Under Eyes Bags

In this modern world of fashion and fast moving world, Every person in this world want to look beautiful from others and want to become a unique personality, for looking good people become modern by applying modern fashions on their hairs, dress and face with different products. The swelling around eyes or change of color under the eyes is called Eyes Bags. It is also know as puffy eyes.

Causes Of Under Eyes Bags :

Some people have natural beauty but on the other hand due to lots of depression or stress and other problems also, they think more than the ordinary thinking person, due to this their face become stern and looks odd this is not the only cause of under eye bags but smoking, kidney problem and some other major factors are their too, sometimes they got under eye bags and a person having under eye bags looks old enough too. Sleep deprivation or over sleeping, Tobacco and Alcohol use and skin disorders can cause under eyes bags.

Treatment Of Under Eyes Bags :
Some of the best treatment of getting rid from these under eye bags are eating fresh food which is full of vitamins, keeping your body dehydrated by eating vegetables and water, use moisturizing creams to take care of under eye bag and taking sleep of almost 7-8 hours a day because it is also a major cause of getting under eye bags, some other tips are also available but the main ones are only these. Eating vitamin rich food especially vitamin A, B and C can be helpful in reducing eyes bags. Change in diet and a whole lifestyle can also help to reduce eyes bags.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis is an infection which causes irritation or soreness in liver, Hepatitis is usually caused by a toxin such as alcohol or virus. There are some other viruses which can cause injury to the liver cells of a human body which include hepatitis C and hepatitis A virus, these viruses are not like the viruses of Hepatitis A and C and they are totally different in structure as well, More than 2.5 Billion people are infected with Hepatitis B virus and around 650,000 people dies because of this deadly virus.

Symptoms of hepatitis B :

When this virus is at early stage the infected person causes flu-like illness, joint pains and fever. There are two infections of Hepatitis B,Acute hepatitis B and Chronic hepatitis B, acute infection has the limit of around 4 months which affects and causes hepatitis B. The main symptoms of acute hepatitis are nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice ( yellowing of eyes and skin ) pain in the abdomen and fatigue.

Diagnosis of hepatitis B :

Hepatitis B can be diagnosed only with specific hepatitis B virus blood tests. These tests are commonly known as hepatitis 'markers' or 'serology'. The tests called assays are usually required for detection of hepatitis B virus which involve blood tests or serum that detect either viral antigens or antibodies.

Treatment of hepatitis B :

The acute hepatitis b does not requires any type of treatment because around 90% of the US adults only can easily cover up from this virus infection, on the other hand treatment of chronic hepatitis b is necessary because it leads towards liver cancer and other deadly diseases, use of vaccines can reduce the growth of virus in a body. Some antiviral drugs are given to the patients to recover at early stage.

Hay Fever

Hay Fever is not the fever of hay, but it is termed hay fever because in the early 19th Century when people harvest their hay and got caught in fever due to cold, sneezing and nasal congestion, they gave it a title of hay fever and thought that hay is the only cause of fever but actually it is not the fact, Allergic Rhinitis is the actual term used to describe the reactions of different substance which are usually noted in this fever, it is a seasonal allergic disorder.
Hay Fever affects nearly 25% of all Americans in which around 20% are adults and 35% young children, more than $1.5 million is spent annually to treat this fever, these types of allergic diseases are growing rapidly throughout the world.
Allergic Rhinitis can lead towards other diseases like asthma and eczema.

Hay Fever Signs And Symptoms :

Following are the main signs and symptoms of hay fever, running nose, itching of nose and eyes, nasal congestion and the nose also becomes swollen, rhinorrhea and itchy throat is also the main symptom of hay fever because if someone eats apple or potato it itches the throat.

Cause Of Hay Fever :

The main cause of hay fever is through the pollen of seasonal plants, it is caused in haying season and the common plants causing hay fever are; pine, cedar, fat hen.
Around 10-20% of the sufferers cause hay fever from birch pollen grains and around 80% got affected by grass pollen.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011


Elephantiasis is a dysmorphic disorder in humans. Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a psychological disorder where people obsess about a imaginary or minor defect in their appearance, they feel themselves inferior from others. Elephantiasis is caused by the thickening of skin and tissues of the body, specially in legs, it is found in various regions of Africa, it is a bacterial disease actually which is caused by a microscopic, thread-like parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, all of which are transmitted by mosquitoes.
Signs And Symptoms Of Elephantiasis :

Elephentasia generally occurs by a bacteria it is commonly seen in the African regions.following are its sympotoms: Severe swelling, Impaired lymphatic drainage, Skin dullness, Thickened skin tissue, Massive leg swelling, Verrucous skin appereance, Brawny skin color, Blocked lymph ducts.

Treatment Of Elephantiasis:

The Treatments for lymphatic filariasis differ depending on the geographic location of the endemic area. In sub-Saharan Africa, albendazole is being used with ivermectin to treat the disease.
Geo-targeting is the vast and technical method which is used worldwide for this disease. In addition, surgical treatment may be helpful for issues related to scrotal elephantiasis and hydrocele. However, surgery is generally ineffective at correcting elephantiasis of the limbs, doxycycline is also very good treatment for the elephentasias.

How To Prevent From Elephantiasis :

The prevention of elephantiasis is very simple the people around or in Africa should be aware of mosquitoes causing these infections.


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