Tetanus is a kind of infectious disease which is caused by infection or pollution of wounds and injuries from bacteria that live in the soil and other rusty materials. This bacteria which is also known as Bacterium Clostridium tetani is a very hard and long living organism capable of living many years in the soil in a form called the spore. Kitasota first discovered that bacteria in 1899. Tetanus occurs when a wound of a person becomes infected or polluted with bacterial spores, the tetanus bacteria then enters into the muscles and bones and that gram bacteria causes many toxic and very harmful after effects, those who recover from tetanus have no longer effects of tetanus in their lives.
Puncture wounds are the best entrance for the bacteria into your body, in United States only 45-55 cases are seen every year. In developing countries of some parts of Asia, South America and around all parts of Africa tetanus is far more common. The annual worldwide occurrence of tetanus infection is more than 50 million cases, this disease has around four types which may be seen in patients:
1. Generalized tetanus can affect all skeletal muscles and it is the most severe of all.
2. Local tetanus manifests the muscles spams and wounds full of bacteria.
3. Cephalic tetanus causes the effects on face after head or face injury and lock jaw may occur.
4. Neonatal tetanus effects the neonates babies.may be new born or 1 month old.
Causes of Tetanus :
1. Clostridium Tetani the name of bacteria which is the main cause of infection.
2. Spores are usually found in mud, sand and animal waste and may survive in ones body for long time.
7. Crush wounds.
8. People who are not immunized or vaccinated may easily get this disease.
Symptoms of Tetanus :
1. Sore muscles.
2. Muscles rigidity.
3. Muscles cramps.
5. Facial muscles are often affected first. Trismus or lockjaw is most common.
6. Problems of open wounds.
Diagnosis of Tetanus :
1. Certain changes in blood pressure (especially high blood pressure).
2. Irregular heartbeat.
4. Pains in muscles.
5. Incomplete tetanus immunization.
6. If the wound is large, crushed, or heavily polluted, you should go to the nearest hospital's emergency department for evaluation.
Treatment of Tetanus :
Tetanus shot are mostly used in order to cure it, it is also known as tetanus booster shot.
1. Antibiotics like metronidazole should be taken which is best to kill infectious bacteria.
2. Wound cleansing.
3. Pain medicines.
4. An injection for prevention to tetanus is must which doctors advise that one should prevent tetanus infection after getting injured, and this injection should be taken with in 24 hours of injury.
First Aid At Home :
1. Clean the wound with pyodine or Dettol by applying on clean cotton.
2. Apply pressure to the area of bleeding to minimize blood loss.
3. Skin should be cleaned with soap and running water.