Emphysema is a disease of lungs , that usually causes shortness of breath which appears due to expansion of the alveoli, it is a long-term disease in which the lung that involve in exchange of gases may be falling out or destroyed. Emphysema is listed in a group of diseases which is called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD in a group ranks fourth in USA only. Unlike cancer, heart disease and other disease which causes death, the death rate for COPD is high, men are more likely to have emphysema disease than women.
When the bronchioles of the lungs are leak, rupture or damaged it is impossible for the lung to exchange gases or air in that way, emphysema occurs which is weakened and results in stuck in of air in lungs, not only air supply is effected but also the blood supply may be effected.
Causes of emphysema:
1. Smoking, which is considered as the biggest cause of emphysema disease.
2. Destruction of lung tissue which occurs through many ways, like Smoking.
3. Enzymes may become weak which are responsible for the emphysema.
4. Air pollution.
5. Relative of infected persons can also develop this disease.
6. Older age.
7. Lungs infections.
Symptoms of emphysema:
1. Cough, sometimes caused by the production of mucus.
2. Too much smoking.
3. Barrel chest.
4. Heavy chest.
5. Too much cough and decongestant of chest.
6. Tolerance of exercise decreased by time.
7. Shortness of breath.
Diagnosis of emphysema:
1. Shortness of breath.
2. Pain in chest area.
3. Prolonged cough.
4. Suffocation along with breath.
5. Skin colour turning to blue or yellowish in color called cyanosis.
6. Too much sputum production.
7. Chest x- rays may diagnose it easily.
8. Family genetical history.
Treatment of emphysema:
1. Stop smoking immediately.
2. Bronchodilating medications such as albuterol is also known as Proventil and Ventolin, it works fast, and a single dose is enough for providing relief to the patient for around 3-5 hours. Albuterol a metered-dose inhaler or MDI.
3. Methylxanthines (Theophylline) , Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) and certain steroid medications may help.
4. Use of oxygen inhaler for shortness of breath over a period of time.
5. Lung Volume Reduction surgery (LVRS) is useful at the last stage of emphysema.
6. Lung transplant.
7. Certain rehabilitation exercises for lungs are also helpful.